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What Is Affinity Diagramming: A Comprehensive Guide

by Impactor

May 15, 2024

5‏‏‎ ‎min read

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Affinity diagramming, also known as affinity mapping, is a powerful tool used in various fields to organize and analyze data. This method involves grouping similar ideas, data, or concepts together, making it easier to identify patterns and draw insights. The terms affinity diagram, affinity map, and affinity chart are often used interchangeably. This comprehensive guide will explore what affinity mapping is, its benefits, how to create an affinity diagram, and provide examples of affinity diagrams.



Affinity diagram

What is an affinity diagram?

An affinity diagram is a visual tool used to organize information into clusters of related items. The term “affinity” in this context refers to the natural relationship or connection between ideas or data points. This method is especially useful when dealing with large amounts of qualitative data, such as brainstorming sessions, user feedback, or complex problems.

What does affinity mean?

In the context of affinity diagrams, “affinity” refers to the natural grouping of related ideas or data points. The concept is based on the principle that items with a commonality can be grouped together, making it easier to identify themes or patterns. This process helps in making sense of large volumes of data by breaking it down into manageable clusters.

Benefits of affinity diagramming

  1. Organizes data. Affinity diagrams help in organizing vast amounts of data into meaningful categories, making it easier to analyze and interpret.
  2. Identifies patterns. By grouping related items, affinity diagramming helps in identifying patterns and trends that might not be obvious at first glance.
  3. Enhances collaboration. This method promotes teamwork and collaboration, as it involves group participation in the categorization process.
  4. Facilitates decision-making. Organized data leads to clearer insights, which in turn aids in informed decision-making.

How to create an affinity diagram?

Step 1: gather data

Let’s review UX design team planning example. 

Collect all relevant data or ideas. This can be from brainstorming sessions, surveys, interviews, or any other data collection methods.

affinity diagram step 1

Step 2: group similar items

Begin grouping similar items together based on their natural relationships. This step often involves discussions and adjustments.

affinity grouping

Step 3: label clusters

Once the items are grouped, label each cluster with a heading that represents the common theme.

affinity diagram label clusters

Step 4: review and refine

Review the groups and refine them as necessary. Ensure that all items are appropriately categorized.

affinity diagram refine and review

Ideation and prioritization with affinity diagrams

Affinity diagrams are particularly effective for ideation and prioritization. Teams can use this method to brainstorm a wide range of ideas and then group them into categories based on their affinity. This makes it easier to prioritize tasks and make strategic decisions. For example, during a project planning session, an affinity diagram can help identify the most critical tasks that need immediate attention, ensuring efficient resource allocation and time management.

Impactor APP: built on affinity principles

The Impactor APP product leverages the principles of affinity mapping to enhance project management and team collaboration. By using affinity diagrams, the app helps teams organize ideas, prioritize tasks, and manage projects more efficiently. The app’s features include tools for creating affinity maps, scheduling projects, allocating resources, and managing project phases from initiation to closure.

Play Video about ideation

The KJ Method and affinity mapping

The KJ Method, developed by Jiro Kawakita, is a structured approach to affinity mapping. It involves five steps:


  1. Record ideas. Write down each idea or piece of information on a separate card.
  2. Group ideas. Sort the cards into groups based on their natural relationships.
  3. Create headings. Label each group with a heading that captures the common theme.
  4. Arrange groups. Organize the groups into a coherent structure.
  5. Draw conclusions. Analyze the structure to draw insights and conclusions.


*The KJ Method is particularly useful in project management for organizing complex information and facilitating team collaboration.

Affinity mapping in project management

Affinity mapping is an invaluable tool in project management, particularly in the areas of project scheduling, resource allocation, and time management. During the project planning phase, teams can use affinity diagrams to organize ideas, identify priorities, and create a work breakdown structure. This helps in visualizing the project lifecycle and managing the various project phases, from initiation to closure.


For instance, in the project initiation phase, an affinity diagram can help in brainstorming project goals and deliverables. In the project planning phase, it aids in creating a detailed project schedule and assigning tasks. During project execution, it helps in monitoring progress and identifying any issues. In the project closure phase, it assists in gathering feedback and lessons learned.

Detailed project management applications

Affinity diagrams are not only useful for organizing ideas but also play a crucial role in various project management activities, including:


  • Project scheduling. By organizing tasks and deliverables, project managers can create more accurate project schedules. This helps in forecasting timelines and ensuring that all project phases are completed on time.
  • Resource allocation. Identifying resource needs and grouping tasks can help in more efficient resource allocation, ensuring that the right people and tools are available when needed.
  • Time management. Affinity diagrams help in breaking down complex projects into manageable tasks, aiding in better time management and scheduling.
  • Project phases. Affinity mapping can be used to organize and manage different project phases, from initiation and planning to execution, monitoring, and closure.
  • Team collaboration. By promoting teamwork and collaboration, affinity diagrams ensure that all team members are on the same page, enhancing communication and reducing misunderstandings.

⭕ Example 1: user feedback for a new APP

Imagine a company has launched a new app and collected user feedback. The feedback is varied and includes comments on functionality, user interface, and features. By using an affinity diagram, the company can organize this feedback into categories such as:

  • Functionality. Bugs, speed issues, missing features.
  • User interface. Design, ease of use, navigation.
  • Features. Desired features, redundant features, feature improvements.
affinity mapping user feedback

⭕ Example 2: brainstorming session for product development

During a brainstorming session for a new product, a team generates numerous ideas. These ideas can be grouped into categories like:


  • Product features. Innovative features, essential features, optional features
  • Marketing strategies. Online campaigns, traditional media, partnerships
  • Target audience. Demographics, user personas, market segments

⭕ Example 3: marketing campaign planning

A marketing team is planning a new campaign and needs to organize their ideas and strategies. Using an affinity diagram, they can group their ideas into categories such as:


  • Target audience. Demographics, psychographics, customer personas
  • Marketing channels. Social media, email marketing, content marketing, paid advertising
  • Campaign goals. Brand awareness, lead generation, customer retention


This organization helps the team prioritize their efforts and create a cohesive campaign strategy.

affinity mapping marketing

⭕ Example 4: software development process

In a software development project, an affinity diagram can help organize user stories, feature requests, and bug reports. Categories might include:


  • User stories. As a user, I want to… (different user needs and stories)
  • Feature requests. New features suggested by users or stakeholders
  • Bug reports. Known issues and bugs that need fixing


By organizing these items, the development team can prioritize tasks and allocate resources more effectively, ensuring a smoother development process.

⭕ Example 5: healthcare improvement initiatives

A hospital is looking to improve patient care and operational efficiency. Using affinity diagrams, they can organize feedback and ideas from staff and patients into categories such as:


  • Patient care. Patient satisfaction, treatment outcomes, patient safety
  • Operational efficiency. Workflow improvements, resource utilization, staff training
  • Technology and equipment. Upgrades needed, maintenance issues, new technology adoption.


This helps the hospital administration prioritize initiatives and implement changes that will have the most significant impact.

affinity mapping healthcare


Affinity diagramming is a versatile and effective tool for organizing and analyzing data. Whether you’re dealing with user feedback, brainstorming ideas, or complex problems, affinity mapping can help you make sense of the information and draw meaningful insights. By understanding the principles of affinity diagrams and following best practices, you can leverage this method to enhance collaboration, improve decision-making, and achieve better outcomes in your projects.


With applications in various fields such as business, education, healthcare, and technology, and its significant role in project management, affinity diagramming proves to be an essential tool. By incorporating ideation and prioritization techniques, and using methods like the KJ Method, you can maximize the benefits of affinity mapping. Tools like the Impactor APP, built on these principles, further streamline project scheduling, resource allocation, and team collaboration, making it easier to achieve your project goals.


By integrating affinity diagrams into your project management practices, you can enhance your ability to manage 5 project phases, from initiation to closure, ensuring that all aspects of the project lifecycle are well-organized and efficiently executed. This not only improves project outcomes but also fosters a collaborative environment where team members can contribute their ideas and insights, leading to more innovative and effective solutions.


Through the structured approach of affinity diagramming, you can break down complex problems, organize large amounts of data, and create a clear path forward. Whether you’re planning a marketing campaign, developing new software, or improving healthcare services, affinity mapping provides a reliable method for achieving clarity and focus. 

Eliz Maiboroda
Marketing Manager and Personal Growth Coach
With over ten years of diverse experience in marketing and training as an ICF-certified coach, Eliz specializes in driving personal growth and developing marketing strategies.
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